Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth

26th Tuesday, 2013  |   Cancer Process, Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Song Mj, Park DK, Park H-J. vidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Volume 2013 (2013),


Melanoma is the most serious type of skin diseases with many obstacles in traditional cancer therapy (e.g., resistance to current method and fast metastatic property). Therefore, establishing more effective and safe treatment regimen is in need. In this study, we investigated Changji mushroom (Antrodia camphorata) grown on germinated brown rice (CBR), as a novel and efficient antimelanoma agent. Antrodia camphorata (AC) is a well-known medicinal mushroom that has been used in oriental medicine for treating various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that AC has a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anticancer properties (Chen et al, 2011; Tu et al, 2012; Liu et al, 2011). Specifically, AC induces apoptotic cell death in human leukemia (Hseu et al, 2004), breast (Lin et al, 2012), ovarian (Liu et al, 2011), colon, (Lien et al, 2011) and liver cancer cells (Rao et al, 2011). However, apoptotic effect of AC on melanoma cells has never been studied. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of AC on germinated brown rice (CBR) and on melanoma cell growth was investigated including the induction of apoptotic cell death and melanogenesis as well as the suppressive effect on melanoma growth with the xenografted mice.

Cancer cells generally show uncontrolled/high proliferation, migration, and matrix-invasion potentials (Sherr, 2004). They lost the regulation of cell-cycle checkpoints or were resistant to the programmed cell death (apoptosis). Therefore, inhibition of tumor growth is the most attractive approach in developing anticancer agents.
Current study demonstrated that CBR EtOAc fraction inhibited melanoma cell proliferation through the induction of subsequent apoptosis and melanogenesis. Importantly, in vitro study result was reflected in our in vivo studies that showed significant melanoma growth inhibition in mice implanted with melanoma xenografts upon treatment with CBR EtOAc fraction. Adenosine was investigated as an active component from CBR EtOAc fraction. Further work will be focused on isolating active components in CBR EtOAc extract that contribute to its anticancer activity. In future applications, this study gives the strong evidence that CBR extract may be a strong candidate in novel cancer prevention and therapeutic strategies.

Chen LY, M. T. Sheu, D. Z. Liu, et al., “Pretreatment with an ethanolic extract of Taiwanofungus camphoratus (Antrodia camphorata) enhances the cytotoxic effects of amphotericin B,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 20, pp. 11255–11263, 2011.

Hseu YC, H. L. Yang, Y. C. Lai, J. G. Lin, G. W. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, “Induction of apoptosis by Antrodia camphorata in human premyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 189–197, 2004.

Lien MH, H. W. Lin, Y. J. Wang, et al., “Inhibition of anchorage-independent proliferation and G0/G1 cell-cycle regulation in human colorectal carcinoma cells by 4, 7-Dimethoxy-5-Methyl-l, 3-Benzodioxole isolated from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorate,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 984027, 10 pages, 2011.

Lin W-L, Y.-J. Lee, P.-Y. Huang, and T.-H. Tseng, “Inhibition of cell survival, cell cycle progression, tumor growth and cyclooxygenase-2 activity in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells by camphorataimide B,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 680, no. 1–3, pp. 8–15, 2012.

Liu S, P.-Y. Yang, D.-N. Hu, Y.-W. Huang, and M.-J. Chen, “Antrodia camphorata induces apoptosis and enhances the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel in human ovarian cancer cells,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1172–1179, 2011.

Rao K, J. Whang-Peng, C.-Y. F. Huang, S.-K. Shyue, S.-L. Hsu, and Y.-M. Tzeng, “Antcin B and its ester derivative from Antrodia camphorata induce apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells involves enhancing oxidative stress coincident with activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 20, pp. 10943–10954, 2011.

Sherr CJ, “Principles of tumor suppression,” Cell, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 235–246, 2004.

Tu SH, C. H. Wu, L. C. Chen, et al., “In vivo antitumor effects of 4, 7-Dimethoxy-5-methyl-1, 3-benzodioxole isolated from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata through activation of the p53-Mediated p27/Kip1 signaling pathway,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 60, no. 14, pp. 3612–3618, 2012.

Review of Pharmacological Effects of Antrodia camphorata and Its Bioactive Compounds

26th Tuesday, 2013  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Source: Geethangili M, Yew-Min Tzeng Y-M. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative MedicineVolume 2011 (2011), doi:10.1093/ecam/nep108 th Antrodia camphorata is a unique mushroom of Taiwan, which has been used as a traditional medicine for protection of diverse health-related conditions. In an effort to translate this Eastern medicine into Western-accepted therapy, a great deal of work has been carried out on A. camphorata. This review discusses the biological activities of the crude extracts and the main bioactive compounds of A. camphorata.

The list of bioactivities of crude extracts is huge, ranging from anti-cancer to vasorelaxation and others. Over 78 compounds consisting of terpenoids, benzenoids, lignans, benzoquinone derivatives, succinic and maleic derivatives, in addition to polysaccharides have been identified. Many of these compounds were evaluated for biological activity. Many activities of crude extracts and pure compounds of A. camphorata against some major diseases of our time, and thus, a current review is of great importance. It is concluded that A. camphorata can be considered as an efficient alternative phytotherapeutic agent or a synergizer in the treatment of cancer and other immune-related diseases. However, clinical trails of human on A. camphorata extracts are limited and those of pure compounds are absent. The next step is to produce some medicines from A. camphorata, however, the production may be hampered by problems related to mass production.

A. camphorata with particular emphasis on crude extracts and isolated compounds. Some correlation between the ethnomedical employment and the pharmacological activities has been duly observed in the present review. Antrodia camphorata extracts from its fruiting bodies, mycelium and cultivation filtrate showed multiple cancer preventive and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition, these extracts provide a variety of anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory active secondary metabolites and polysaccharides. Of particular promise, due to their potent cytotoxic activity against a number of cancer cell lines, are the triterpenoids with ketonic functional groups. In fact, these triterpenoids, which have also been found in a small number of other mushrooms, are currently under active investigation as potential

therapeutic leads (Majid et al, 2009). Because the antioxidant action is also a means of lowering chronic anti-inflammatory action, A. camphorata hold potential in functional food approaches aimed at normalizing metabolic syndrome.


Majid E, K. B. Male, Y.-M. Tzeng, J. O. Omamogho, J. D. Glennon, and J. H. T. Luong, “Cyclodextrin-modified capillary electrophoresis for achiral and chiral separation of ergostane and lanostane compounds extracted from the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata,” Electrophoresis, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1967–1975, 2009.


Summer, when the sun is shining, is the perfect time to take

25th Monday, 2013  |   Uncategorized  |  no comments

alexander hamilton letters will go on auction block at sotheby’s

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Early this year, he stepped down from Stewart Title after suffering a stroke in February. The community rallied around him, holding multiple fundraisers for his medical bills. Knowles said the stroke didn’t affect his mental capacity, but he had to relearn to walk and he’s still in physical therapy.

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fake oakley sunglasses In this Oct. 5, 2000, file photo, New York Mets’ Darryl Hamilton reacts after scoring the game winning run in the 10th inning on a single by teammate Jay Payton in a baseball game against the San Francisco Giants in San Francisco. Pearland police say an initial investigation has determined Hamilton had been shot several times and that a woman in the home died of a self inflicted gunshot wound fake oakley sunglasses.

Polyphenols Inhibit Indoleamine 3,5-Dioxygenase-1 Enzymatic Activity — A Role of Immunomodulation in Chemoprevention

25th Monday, 2013  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Chen SS, Corteling R, Stevanato L, Sinden J. DiscovMed. November 27, 2012
Figure: Dose-responsive inhibition of IDO-1 enzyme treated by apigenin, baicalein, chrysin, genistein, quercetin, and wogonin. Red: treated by baicalein; blue: treated by wogonin; gray: treated by genistein; green: treated by chrysin; yellow: treated by apigenin; black: treated by quercetin. Y scale represents IDO-1 activity in the presence vs. absence of polyphenols, as shown by the percent change in the metabolite L-kynurenine concentration.

Metastasis is one of the cancer hallmarks described by Hanahan and Weinberg. Emerging evidence shows that it requires interplays between cancer cells and micro-environmental biofactors. Indoleamine 3,5-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) produced by cancer, local lymph nodes, and satellite cells have been demonstrated as one of the biofactors. Aberrant IDO-1 activity has partially contributed to immunosuppressive environment by repressing T lymphocyte and natural killer cell activities, and activating regulatory T cells (Treg, CD4+CD25+). Clinical investigations further show a negative correlation between the enzyme activity and prognosis in patients with various cancer types. The findings suggest a possible role of IDO-1 inhibitor in restoring host anti-tumor immunity and attenuating cancer metastasis. Data from preclinical and phase I/II clinical studies with IDO-1 inhibitors support this hypothesis. Polyphenols as antioxidants are shown to exhibit anticancer activities. However, the underlying mechanism has not been entirely characterized. We recently found that certain flavone molecules profoundly inhibit the enzymatic activity of IDO-1 but not mRNA expression in human neuronal stem cells (hNSC) confirmed by cell-based assay and qRT-PCR. To further the investigation, we studied additional anti-cancer phytochemicals including chalcone, flavonol, isoflavone, and diterpene. Here we summarize the results and show that the inhibitory sensitivity depends on the molecular structure in the following order: apigenin > wogonin > chrysin > biacalein ~ genistein > quercetin.

Curcumin and isoliquiritigenin (a chalcone) exhibited toxicity to hNSCs. Although oridonin (a diterpene) showed a null toxicity toward hNSCs, it repressed the enzymatic function only marginally in contrast to its potent cytotoxicity in various cancer cell lines. While the mode of action of the enzyme-polyphenol complex awaits to be investigated, the sensitivity of enzyme inhibition was compared to the anti-proliferative activities toward three cancer cell lines. The IC50s obtained from both sets of the experiments indicate that they are in the vicinity of micromolar concentration with the enzyme inhibition slightly more active. These results suggest that attenuation of immune suppression via inhibition of IDO-1 enzyme activity may be one of the important mechanisms of polyphenols in chemoprevention or combinatorial cancer therapy.

Angiogenesis is an essential component of inflammation and its resolution. Elevated concentration of serum vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF) in ovarian cancer patients promotes cancer angiogenesis and metastasis, and reduces survival time (Li et al., 2004). Each of apigenin, baicalein, chrysin, genistein, quercetin, and wogonin has been shown to downregulate VEGF gene or protein expression in various cancer cells in vitro and in mouse models, and therefore reduces angiogenesis and cancer cell migration (Buchler et al., 2004; Lin et al., 2006; Lu et al., 2008; Luo et al., 2008; Mafuvadze et al., 2010; Nie et al., 2006). The combined inhibition in VEGF expression and IDO-1 enzyme function could profoundly enhance the anti-cancer metastatic potential by polyphenols.

Buchler P, Reber HA, Buchler MW, Friess H, Lavey RS, Hines OJ. Antiangiogenic activity of genistein in pancreatic carcinoma cells is mediated by the inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and the down-regulation of VEGF gene expression. Cancer 100(1):201-210, 2004.
Li L, Wang L, Zhang W, Tang B, Zhang J, Song H, Yao D, Tang Y, Chen X, Yang Z, Wang G, Li X, Zhao J, Ding H, Reed E, Li QQ. Correlation of serum VEGF levels with clinical stage, therapy efficacy, tumor metastasis and patient survival in ovarian cancer. Anticancer Res 24(3b):1973-1979, 2004.
Lin CM, Chang H, Li SY, Wu IH, Chiu JH. Chrysin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced angiogenesis via down-regulation of VEGF/VEGFR-2(KDR) and IL-6/IL-6R pathways. Planta Med 72(8):708-714, 2006.
Lu N, Gao Y, Ling Y, Chen Y, Yang Y, Gu HY, Qi Q, Liu W, Wang XT, You QD, Guo QL. Wogonin suppresses tumor growth in vivo and VEGF-induced angiogenesis through inhibiting tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR2. Life Sci 82(17-18):956-963, 2008.
Luo H, Jiang BH, King SM, Chen YC. Inhibition of cell growth and VEGF expression in ovarian cancer cells by flavonoids. Nutr Cancer 60(6):800-809, 2008.
Mafuvadze B, Benakanakere I, Hyder SM. Apigenin blocks induction of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA and protein in progestin-treated human breast cancer cells. Menopause 17(5):1055-1063, 2010.
Nie D, Krishnamoorthy S, Jin R, Tang K, Chen Y, Qiao Y, Zacharek A, Guo Y, Milanini J, Pages G, Honn KV. Mechanisms regulating tumor angiogenesis by 12-lipoxygenase in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem 281(27):18601-18609, 2006.

This process is what makes your ice cream recipe freeze

21st Thursday, 2013  |   Uncategorized  |  no comments

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