Soy Isoflavones Alter Expression of Genes Associated with Cancer Progression, Including Interleukin-8, in Androgen-Independent PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells

18th Monday, 2011  |   Prostate Cancer  |  no comments

High consumption of soy isoflavones in Asian diets has been correlated with a lower incidence of clinically important cases of prostate cancer. The chemopreventive properties of these diets may result from an interaction of several types of isoflavones, including genistein and daidzein. The present study investigated the effects of a soy isoflavone concentrate (ISF) on growth and gene expression profiles of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Trypan blue exclusion and [3H]-thymidine incorporation assays showed that ISF decreased cell viability and caused a dose-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis, respectively, with 50% inhibition (IC50) of DNA synthesis at 52 mg/L (P = 0.05). The glucoside conjugates of genistein and daidzein in ISF were converted to bioactive free aglycones in cell culture in association with the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Flow cytometry and Western immunoblot analyses showed that ISF at 200 mg/L caused an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle (P < 0.05) and decreased cyclin A by 20% (P < 0.05), respectively. The effect of ISF on the gene expression profile of PC-3 cells was analyzed using Affymetrix oligonucleotide DNA microarrays that interrogate ∼17,000 human genes. Of the 75 genes altered by ISF, 28 were upregulated and 47 were downregulated (P < 0.05). Further analysis showed that IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase 13, inhibin ß A, follistatin, and fibronectin mRNA levels were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of p21CIP1, a major cell cycle inhibitory protein, was increased. The effects of ISF on the expression of IL-8 and p21CIP1 mRNA and protein were validated at high and low ISF concentrations. Our data show that ISF inhibits the growth of PC-3 cells through modulation of cell cycle progression and the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. ISFs may inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells by downregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis, while inducing major cell cycle inhibitors. The use of soy extract supplements, such as the one investigated in this study, offers a way to obtain higher doses of ISFs compared with traditional diets that may be difficult for Americans to consume. These supplements maintain the ISF ratios found in soybeans and may retain other minor components that have potent anticancer activity, such as saponins and lunasin. In addition, about one-third of the population will convert substantial amounts of daidzein to equol via intestinal microbial metabolism, a metabolite with a high affinity for the estrogen receptor ß (41). This may provide them with added prostate cancer risk reduction. However, further investigations are warranted to establish the relation of ISF-regulated genes with the molecular mechanisms involved in cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Handayani R, Rice L, Cui Yh, et al. J. Nutr. January 1, 2006 vol. 136 no. 1 Pp.75-82

inch g pad tablet announced

17th Sunday, 2011  |   Uncategorized  |  no comments

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pandora essence If you are a Pandora charm lover, chances are you already know how wide the variety of Pandora charm categories is. A few examples of which are the complete set of birthstone charms, animal charms, over fifty types of flowers charms, food and drink related charms, alphabet charms, holiday charms, birthday charms and love charms. The few mentioned are just the ones most popularly bought by the consumers pandora essence.

Chemopreventive potential of epigallocatechin gallate and genistein: evidence from epidemiological and laboratory studies.

12th Tuesday, 2011  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Chemopreventive potential of epigallocatechin gallate and genistein: evidence from epidemiological and laboratory studies.
A wide array of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory substances derived from edible plants have been reported to possess chemopreventive and chemoprotective activities. Among the most extensively investigated and well-defined dietary chemopreventives are epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a principal antioxidant derived from green tea and genistein, a major pharmacologically active isoflavone widely present in soy products. Multiple lines evidence from epidemiologic studies indicate that frequent consumption of green tea is inversely associated with the risk of several types of human cancer, and studies with animal and in vitro cell culture models have revealed EGCG as a major chemopreventive ingredient of green tea. The lower frequencies of breast and prostate cancer in Asian population in general, compared to those in Western societies have been attributed to their consumption of relatively large amounts of soy products. Genistein, as a principal chemopreventive components of soy, exerts a wide array of chemopreventive activities in each stage of multistep carcinogenesis. The purpose of this review is to provide perspectives on the molecular basis of chemopreventive activities of EGCG and geneistein as representative functional food phytochemicals with emphasis on their ability to control intracellular signaling cascades responsible for regulating cell growth and differentiation.
Park OJ, Surh YJ. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Apr 15;150(1):43-56.

Cell signaling and regulators of cell cycle as molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by dietary agents.
Prostate cancer (PCA) is the most common invasive malignancy and leading cause (after lung) of cancer deaths in males. Since PCA is initially androgen-dependent, strategies are targeted toward androgen depletion for its control. However, tumor re-growth mostly occurs following this modality, and is androgen-independent. A loss of functional androgen receptor and an enhanced expression of growth factor receptors (e.g. erbB family members) and associated ligands have been shown to be the causal genetic events in PCA progression. These genetic alterations lead to an epigenetic mechanism where a feed-back autocrine loop between membrane receptor (e.g. epidermal growth factor receptor [erbB1] and associated ligand (e.g. transforming growth factor-alpha) results in an enhanced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) as an essential component of the uncontrolled growth of PCA at an advanced and androgen-independent stage. Together, we rationalized that inhibiting these epigenetic events would be useful in controlling advanced PCA growth. Dietary polyphenolic flavonoids and isoflavones are being studied extensively as cancer-preventive and interventive agents. Therefore, we focused our attention on silymarin, genistein, and epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), present in milk thistle, soy beans, and green tea, respectively. The effect of these agents was assessed on the erbB1-Shc-ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway, cell cycle regulatory molecules, and cell growth and death. In androgen-independent human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells, silymarin, genistein, and EGCG resulted in a significant to complete inhibition of transforming growth factor-alpha-caused activation of membrane receptor erbB1 followed by inhibition of downstream cytoplasmic signaling target Shc activation and a decrease in its binding with erbB1, without an alteration in their protein expression. Silymarin and genistein also inhibited ERK1/2 activation, suggesting that these agents impair the activation of erbB1-Shc-ERK1/2 signaling in DU145 cells. In the case of EGCG, a further increase in ERK1/2 activation was observed that was related to its pro-oxidant and apoptotic activities. Silymarin, genistein, and EGCG also resulted in a significant induction of Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27 and a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, but a moderate inhibition of CDK2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E was observed. An enhanced level of Cip1/p21 and Kip1/27 also led to an increase in their binding to CDK4 and CDK2. Treatment of cells with silymarin, genistein, and EGCG also resulted in strong cell growth inhibition at lower doses, and complete inhibition at higher doses. In contrast to silymarin, higher doses of genistein also showed cell death. A more profound cytotoxic effect was observed in the case of EGCG, with strong cell death at lower doses and complete loss of viability at higher doses. Together, these results suggest that cell signaling and regulators of cell cycle are potential epigenetic molecular targets for prostate cancer prevention by dietary agents. More studies, therefore, are needed with these agents to explore their anticarcinogenic potential against human prostate cancer.
Agarwal R. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Oct 15;60(8):1051-9.

Multi-targeted therapy of cancer by genistein.
Soy isoflavones have been identified as dietary components having an important role in reducing the incidence of breast and prostate cancers in Asian countries. Genistein, the predominant isoflavone found in soy products, has been shown to inhibit the carcinogenesis in animal models. There is a growing body of experimental evidence showing that the inhibition of human cancer cell growth by genistein is mediated via the modulation of genes that are related to the control of cell cycle and apoptosis. It has been shown that genistein inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB and Akt signaling pathways, both of which are known to maintain a homeostatic balance between cell survival and apoptosis. Moreover, genistein antagonizes estrogen- and androgen-mediated signaling pathways in the processes of carcinogenesis. Furthermore, genistein has been found to have antioxidant properties, and shown to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and metastasis. Taken together, both in vivo and in vitro studies have clearly shown that genistein, one of the major soy isoflavones is a promising agent for cancer chemoprevention and further suggest that it could be an adjunct to cancer therapy by virtue of its effects on reversing radioresistance and chemoresistance. In this review, we attempt to provide evidence for these preventive and therapeutic effects of genistein in a succinct manner highlighting comprehensive state-of-the-art knowledge regarding its multi-targeted biological and molecular effects in cancer cells.
Banerjee S, Li Y, Wang Z, Sarkar FH. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):226-42.

Soy isoflavone genistein induces cell death in breast cancer cells through mobilization of endogenous copper ions and generation of reactive oxygen species.

11th Monday, 2011  |   Breast Cancer  |  no comments

Scope: Worldwide geographical variation in cancer incidence indicates a correlation between dietary habits and cancer risk. Epidemiological studies have suggested that populations with high isoflavone intake through soy consumption have lower rates of breast, prostate, and colon cancer. Isoflavone genistein in soybean is considered a potent chemopreventive agent against cancer. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, a clear anticancer action mechanism of genistein is still not known.
Methods and results: Here, we show that the cytotoxic action of genistein against breast cancer cells involves mobilization of endogenous copper. Further, whereas the copper specific chelator neocuproine is able to inhibit the apoptotic potential of genistein, the molecules which specifically bind iron (desferroxamine mesylate) and zinc (histidine) are relatively ineffective in causing such inhibition. Also, genistein-induced apoptosis in these cells is inhibited by scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) implicating ROS as effector elements leading to cell death.
Conclusions: As copper levels are known to be considerably elevated in almost all types of cancers, in this proof-of-concept study we show that genistein is able to target endogenous copper leading to prooxidant signaling and consequent cell death. It is believed that such a mechanism explains the anticancer effect of genistein as also its preferential cytotoxicity towards cancer cells.
Ullah MF, Ahmad A, Zubair H, et al. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. Volume 55, Issue 4, Pp. 553–9, April 2011. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201000329

An Experimental Study on the Antileukemia Effects of Gypenosides In Vitro and In Vivo

8th Friday, 2011  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Gypenosides (Gyp), found in Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, have been used as folk medicine for centuries and have exhibited diverse pharmacological effects, including antileukemia effects in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, Gyp were used to examine effects on cell viability, cell cycle, and induction of apoptosis in vitro. They were administered in the diet to mice injected with WEHI-3 cells in vivo. Experimental design. Effects of Gyp on WEHI-3 cells were determined by flow cytometric assay and Western blotting. Results. Gyp inhibited the growth of WEHI-3 cells. These effects were associated with the induction of G0/G1 arrest, morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, and increased sub-G1 phase. Gyp promoted the production of reactive oxygen species, increased Ca2+ levels, and induced the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. The effects of Gyp were dose and time dependent. Moreover, Gyp

increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, reduced levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2, and stimulated release of cytochrome c, AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor), and Endo G (endonuclease G) from mitochondria. The levels of GADD153, GRP78, ATF6-?, and ATF4-? were increased by Gyp, resulting in ER (endoplasmic reticular) stress in WEHI-3 cells. Oral consumption of Gyp increased the survival rate of mice injected with WEHI-3 cells used as a mouse model of leukemia. Conclusions. Results of these experiments provide new information on understanding mechanisms of Gyp-induced effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in an in vivo animal model. Hsu H-Y, Yang J-S, Lu K-W, Yu C-S, et al. Integr Cancer Ther March 2011 vol. 10 no. 1 Pp.101-12. doi: 10.1177/1534735410377198