PCA3, a Relatively New Marker for Prostate Cancer

17th Monday, 2012  |   Prostate Cancer, Reports  |  no comments

This test might lower the number of biopsies driven by prostate-specific antigen testing. Prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Its product can be measured in urine specimens collected after digital rectal exams; FDA-approved assays are available for clinical use. To determine how PCA3 might help clinicians decide which patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels should undergo biopsies, researchers conducted this study of 1913 men with PSA levels 2.5 ng/mL. All men underwent PCA3 testing before undergoing biopsies. Biopsies were positive for cancer in 42% of patients. If only men with PCA3 scores 35 had undergone biopsies, about 1300 men would have avoided procedures, but about 400 of the 800 cancers would have been missed. In contrast, if the cutoff for a positive PCA3 score were lowered to 10, only about 100 of the 800 cancers would have been missed, but only about 500 men would have avoided biopsies. Comment: Primary care clinicians should be aware of PCA3, which urologists are using increasingly to make decisions about prostate biopsy — especially for patients who are followed after previous negative biopsy results. The sensitivity and specificity of PCA3 vary considerably depending on the cutoff used; a cutoff of 25 (midway between the cutoffs discussed above) is suggested for a recently approved PCA3 assay. But whether PCA3 ultimately will do what its proponents hope — lower prostate cancer mortality and also lower the biopsy rate — remains unclear. Citation: Crawford ED et al. Diagnostic performance of PCA3 to detect prostate cancer in men with increased prostate specific antigen: A prospective study of 1,962 cases. J Urol 2012 Nov; 188:1726. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2012.07.023)

How immune cells can promote cancer progression

17th Monday, 2012  |   Others, Reports  |  no comments

Jemima Escamilla on Tue, Dec 11, 2012 The myeloid lineage in tumors, generally termed myeloid suppressor cells (MSC), are considered key in the aberrant growth promotion of tumor cells and suppression of the anti-tumor immune response. They are considered the major inflammatory cells of many solid tumors, including breast and prostate.

MSCs in tumors include, tumor associated macrophages (TAM), polymorphonuclear and monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (PMN and MO-MDSC). Similar to T-cells, MSC activity can also be modulated by signaling factors from the microenvironment and can be induced to become more anti-tumor and pro-inflammatory. MSCs share similar functions and their role in cancer promotion is said to be several fold. First, they can suppress the adaptive immune response and thus function as regulators of anti-tumor T-cell activity. Second, they can induce angiogenesis through secretion of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and matrix remodeling enzymes. Additionally, they can also promote growth and proliferation by secreting growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) among others. In non-pathological conditions, myeloid derived cells play a large role in wound repair also by promoting angiogenesis, growth and proliferation. Therefore, it is easy to deduce that during chemotherapy or any type of anti-tumor treatment a dying tumor cell may appear as a wound that needs repair or healing. The myeloid lineage in tumors, generally termed myeloid suppressor cells (MSC), are considered key in the aberrant growth promotion of tumor cells and suppression of the anti-tumor immune response. They are considered the major inflammatory cells of many solid tumors, including breast and prostate. MSCs in tumors include, tumor associated macrophages (TAM), polymorphonuclear and monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (PMN and MO-MDSC). Similar to T-cells, MSC activity can also be modulated by signaling factors from the microenvironment and can be induced to become more anti-tumor and pro-inflammatory.

MSCs share similar functions and their role in cancer promotion is said to be several fold. First, they can suppress the adaptive immune response and thus function as regulators of anti-tumor T-cell activity. Second, they can induce angiogenesis through secretion of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and matrix remodeling enzymes. Additionally, they can also promote growth and proliferation by secreting growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) among others. In non-pathological conditions, myeloid derived cells play a large role in wound repair also by promoting angiogenesis, growth and proliferation. Therefore, it is easy to deduce that during chemotherapy or any type of anti-tumor treatment a dying tumor cell may appear as a wound that needs repair or healing.

And what fame she has achieved isn’t attributable

14th Friday, 2012  |   Uncategorized  |  no comments

The genome project highlighted the unique membrane structure of S. Agalactiae as it identified the S. Agalactiae genomic sequences that code for the B antigen present on the surface of all S. And what fame she has achieved isn’t attributable, as is so often the case, to any one or two roles or {Cheap Prada Bags Cheap Prada Bags2, for that matter, to any one medium. Although there have been pronounced growth spurts here and there in her career, Linney has for the most part bloomed in an incremental fashion Cheap Prada Bags1, part by interesting part. The actor John Benjamin Hickey http://www.cheap-prada-bags.net, a longtime friend who appeared on Broadway with her in “The Crucible” in 2002 and now plays her character’s kookily ascetic brother in “The Big C Cheap Prada},” describes her as “a kind of journeyman who accidentally became a star.”.

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Anti-tumour and anti-metastatic actions of wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis roots through anti-lymphangiogenesis

12th Wednesday, 2012  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Tumour growth and metastasis are associated with angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis through the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or VEGF-C in tumours, and the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 or VEGFR-3 in vascular endothelial cells or lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumour lymphangiogenesis, and consequently stimulate metastasis through the lymphatic system to lymph nodes. Yoshiyuki Kimura & Maho Sumiyoshi examined the effects of wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis roots on tumour growth and metastasis using a highly metastatic model in osteosarcoma LM8-bearing mice. Wogonin (25 and 50mg/kg, twice daily) reduced tumour growth and metastasis to the lung, liver and

kidney, angiogenesis (CD31-positive cells), lymphangiogenesis (LYVE-1-positive cells), and TAM (F4/80-positive cell) numbers in the tumors of LM8-bearing mice. Wogonin (10–100?M) also inhibited increases in IL-1? production and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide in THP-1 macrophages. Wogonin had no effect on VEGF-C production in LM8 cells, or VEGFR-3 expression in human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs), however, it inhibited VEGF-C-induced VEGFR-3 phosphorylation in HLECs. The anti-tumour and anti-metastatic actions of wogonin may be associated with the inhibition of VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis through a reduction in VEGF-C-induced VEGFR-3 phosphorylation by the inhibition of COX-2 expression and IL-1? production in TAMs. Kimura Y & Sumiyoshi M. Phytomedicine. Dec 07 2012. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.10.016

The Padres had room on the 40 man so it didn’t exactly cost

8th Saturday, 2012  |   Uncategorized  |  no comments

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