Chemical-induced DNA Damage and Human Cancer Risk

4th Monday, 2013  |   Others  |  no comments

Poirier MC. Discovery Medicine. Oct. 2012 Vol.14, No.77, Pp.283-8. discovery_medicine_no_77_miriam_c_poirier_table_1 For more than 200 years human cancer induction has been known to be associated with a large variety of chemical exposures. Most exposures to chemical carcinogens occur as a result of occupation, pollution in the ambient environment, lifestyle choices, or pharmaceutical use. Scientific investigations have revealed that the majority of cancer causing chemicals, or chemical carcinogens, act through “genotoxic” or DNA damaging mechanisms, which involve covalent binding of the chemical to DNA (DNA adduct formation). Cancer-inducing exposures are typically frequent and/or chronic over years, and the accumulation of DNA damage or DNA adduct formation is considered to be a necessary requirement for tumor induction. Studies in animal models have indicated that the ability to reduce DNA damage will also result in reduction of tumor risk, leading to the hypothesis that individuals having the highest levels of DNA adducts may have an increased cancer risk, compared to individuals with the lowest levels of DNA adducts. Here we have reviewed twelve investigations showing 2- to 9-fold increased Relative Risks (RR) or Odds Ratios (OR) for cancer in (the 25% of) individuals having the highest DNA adduct levels, compared to (the 25% of) matched individuals with the lowest DNA adducts. These studies also provided preliminary evidence that multiple types of DNA adducts combined, or DNA adducts combined with other risk factors (such as infection or inflammation), may be associated with more than 10-fold higher cancer risks (RR = 34-60), compared to those found with

a single carcinogen. Taken together the data suggest that a reduction in human DNA adduct level is likely to produce a reduction in human cancer risk.

Transcriptional profiling of Chinese medicinal formula Si-Wu-Tang on breast cancer cells reveals phytoestrogenic activity.

4th Monday, 2013  |   Breast Cancer, Herb or Compound  |  no comments

The use of traditional herbal medicine is widespread in China and other Asian countries, and is also rapidly growing in Western countries [32]. Despite its long history of use, many questions remain to be answered, due to lack of mechanistic understanding. In this study, we demonstrated, using a whole human genome microarray approach, the phytoestrogenic mechanism for a popular formula Si-Wu-Tang (SWT). Three major points are highlighted: (1) this is the first study to use DNA microarray-based gene expression generic cialis analysis to reveal phytoestrogenic activity of herbal medicine. The similar approach can be used for other natural products; (2) The genomic data

were validated by the “gold standard” method of gene expression study – quantitative RT-PCR; and (3) the discovery was confirmed by pharmacological assays such as cell proliferation and estrogen receptor luciferase reporter assays on breast cancer cell lines. The results presented here are very important for many women taking SWT for various conditions and clinical practitioners who recommend the use of SWT or other CAM with similar phytoestrogenic activities. BACKGROUND: Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Paeoniae, Angelicae, Chuanxiong and Rehmanniae, is one of the most popular traditional oriental medicines for women’s diseases. In our previous study, the microarray gene expression profiles of SWT on breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were found similar to the effect of beta-estradiol (E2) on MCF-7 cells in the Connectivity Map database. METHODS: Further data analysis was conducted to find the main similarities cialis generic and differences between the effects of SWT and E2 on MCF-7 gene expression. The cell proliferation assay on MCF-7 (ER-positive) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative) cells were used to examine such estrogenic activity. genericcialis-onlineed The estrogenic potency of SWT was further confirmed by estrogen-responsive element (ERE) luciferase reporter assay in MCF-7 cells. RESULTS: Many estrogen regulated genes strongly up-regulated by E2 were similarly up-regulated by SWT, e.g., GREB1, PGR and EGR3. Of interest with regard to safety of SWT, the oncogenes MYBL1 and RET were strongly induced by E2 but not by SWT. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a highly concordant expression change in cialis 10 mg selected genes with data obtained by microarrays. Further supporting SWT’s estrogenic activity, in MCF-7 but not in MDA-MB-231 cells, SWT stimulated cell growth at lower concentrations (CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed a new mechanism to support the clinical use of SWT for estrogen related diseases and possibly for cancer prevention. This study also demonstrated the feasibility of using microarray transcriptional profiling to discover phytoestrogenic components that are present in natural products. Source: Liu M, Fan J, Wang S, Wang Z, Wang C, Zuo Z, Chow MS, Shi L, Wen Z, Huang Y. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Jan 10;13(1):11. References 1. Wang ZJ, Wo SK, Wang L, Lau CB, Lee VH, Chow MS, Zuo Z: Simultaneous quantification of active components in the herbs and products of Si-Wu-Tang by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2009, 50(2):232–244. 2. Yeh LL, Liu JY, Lin KS, Liu YS, Chiou JM, Liang KY, Tsai TF, Wang LH, Chen CT, Huang CY: A randomised placebo-controlled trial of a traditional Chinese herbal formula in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. PLoS One 2007, 2(1):e719. 3. Ohta H, Ni JW, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H, Shimizu M: Peony and its major constituent, paeoniflorin, improve radial maze performance impaired by scopolamine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1993, 45(3):719–723.

Talk to other nursing moms, read books to familiarize

2nd Saturday, 2013  |   Uncategorized  |  no comments

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In this 2 hour workshop, you will learn: WHAT IS YOGA?

25th Friday, 2013  |   Uncategorized  |  no comments

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25th Friday, 2013  |   Uncategorized  |  no comments

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