Binding characteristics of aromatase inhibitors and phytoestrogens to human aromatase.

28th Tuesday, 2010  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

We have evaluated the binding characteristics cialis 10 mg of three steroidal inhibitors [4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OHA), 7alpha-(4′-amino)phenylthio-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (7alpha-APTADD), and bridge (2,19-methyleneoxy) androstene-3,17-dione (MDL 101,003)], four nonsteroidal inhibitors [aminoglutethimide (AG), CGS 20267, ICI D1033, and vorozole (R83842)], and two flavone phytoestrogens (chrysin, and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone) to aromatase through a combination of computer modeling and inhibitory profile studies on the wild-type and six aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y). We have generated two aromatase models based on the x-ray structures of cytochrome P450-cam and cytochrome P450bm3, respectively. A major difference between the cytochrome P450cam-based and cytochrome P450bm3-based models is in the predicted lengths of helices F and G. In the cytochrome P450cam-based model, helices F and G lie antiparallel and extend across the active-site face of the molecule from one edge to the center, so that the carboxyl-terminal residues of helix F and the N-terminal residues of helix G make a major contribution to the structure of the active site. In the cytochrome P450bm3-based model, both helices are longer and so extend almost all the way across the active-site face of the molecule. Considering the size of the androgen substrate, we evaluated our results mainly based on the cytochrome P450cam model. The mutations involved in this study are thought to be at or near the proposed active site pocket. The inhibitory profile analysis has produced very interesting cialis 20 mg results and provided a molecular basis as to how seven aromatase inhibitors with different structures bind to the active site of aromatase. Furthermore, the investigation reveals that phytoestrogens bind to the active site of aromatase in a different orientation from that in the estrogen receptor. Chen S, Kao YC, Laughton CA. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1997 Apr;61(3-6):107-15.

Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study.

28th Tuesday, 2010  |   Others, Uncategorized  |  no comments

Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are plant chemicals and are known to be competitive inhibitors of cytochrome P450 aromatase with respect to the androgen substrate. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to oestrogen; therefore, these plant chemicals are thought

to be capable of modifying the estrogen level in women. In this study, the inhibition profiles of four flavones [chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone)], two isoflavones [genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone)], one flavanone [naringenin (4, 5,7-trihydroxyflavanone)], and one naphthoflavone (alpha-naphthoflavone) on the wild-type and six human aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y) were determined. In combination with computer modeling, the binding characteristics and the structure requirement for flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens to inhibit human aromatase were obtained. These compounds were found to bind to the active site of aromatase in an orientation in which rings A and C mimic rings D and C of the androgen substrate, respectively. This study also provides a molecular basis as to why isoflavones are significantly poorer inhibitors of aromatase than flavones.
Kao YC, Zhou C, Sherman M, Laughton CA, & Chen S. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 February; 106(2): 85–92.

Prevention and Therapy of Cancer by Dietary Monoterpenes

26th Sunday, 2010  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Monoterpenes are nonnutritive dietary components found in the essential oils of citrus fruits and other plants. A number of these dietary monoterpenes have antitumor activity. For example, d-limonene, which comprises .90% of orange peel oil, has chemopreventive activity against rodent mammary, skin, liver, lung and forestomach cancers. Similarly, other dietary monoterpenes have chemopreventive activity against rat mammary, lung and forestomach cancers when fed during the initiation phase. In addition, perillyl alcohol has promotion phase chemopreventive activity against rat liver cancer, and geraniol has in vivo antitumor activity against murine leukemia cells. Perillyl alcohol and d-limonene also have chemotherapeutic activity against rodent mammary and pancreatic tumors. As a result, their cancer chemotherapeutic activities are under evaluation in Phase I clinical trials. Several mechanisms of action may account for the antitumor activities of monoterpenes. The blocking chemopreventive effects of limonene and other monoterpenes during the initiation phase of mammary carcinogenesis are likely due to the induction of Phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in carcinogen detoxification. The post-initiation phase, tumor suppressive chemopreventive activity of monoterpenes may be due to the induction of apoptosis and/or to inhibition of the post-translational isoprenylation of cell growth-regulating proteins. Chemotherapy of chemically induced mammary tumors with monoterpenes results in tumor redifferentiation concomitant with increased expression of the mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor and transforming growth factor b1. Thus, monoterpenes would appear to act through multiple mechanisms in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy

of cancer. Crowell PL. Prevention and Therapy of Cancer by Dietary Monoterpenes. J. Nutr. 129: 775S–778S, 1999.

Cancer Prevention by Natural Compounds. Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics.

26th Sunday, 2010  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Increasing attention is being paid to the possibility of applying cancer chemopreventive agents for individuals at high risk of neoplastic development. For this purpose by natural compounds have practical advantages with regard to availability, suitability for oral application, regulatory approval and mechanisms of action. Candidate substances such as phytochemicals present in foods and their derivatives have been identified by a combination of epidemiological and experimental studies. Plant constituents include vitamin derivatives, phenolic and flavonoid agents, organic sulfur compounds, isothiocyanates, curcumins, fatty acids and d-limonene. Examples of compounds from animals are unsaturated fatty acids and lactoferrin. Recent studies have indicated that mechanisms underlying chemopreventive potential may be combinations of anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune-enhancing, and anti-hormone effects, with modification of drug-metabolizing enzymes, influence on the cell cycle and cell differentiation, induction of apoptosis and suppression of proliferation and angiogenesis playing roles in the initiation and secondary modification stages of neoplastic development. Accordingly, natural agents are advantageous for application to humans because of their combined mild mechanism. Here we review naturally occurring compounds useful for cancer chemprevention based on in vivo studies with reference to their structures, sources and mechanisms of action.
Tsuda H, Ohshima Y, Nomoto H, et al. Cancer Prevention by Natural Compounds. Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics. Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics. Vol. 19 (2004) , No. 4 pp.245-263

d -Limonene sensitizes docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer cells: Generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis

26th Sunday, 2010  |   Herb or Compound  |  no comments

Limonene takes its name from the lemon, as the rind of the lemon, like other citrus fruits, contains considerable amounts of this compound, which contributes to their odor. Limonene is a chiral molecule, and biological sources produce one enantiomer: the principal industrial source, citrus fruit, contains D-limonene ((+)-limonene), which is the (R)-enantiomer (CAS number 5989-27-5, EINECS number 227-813-5).

Racemic limonene is known as dipentene.[1] D-Limonene is obtained commercially by extraction from orange peel with liquid CO2.
Clinical trials have shown that docetaxel combined with other novel agents can improve the survival of androgen-independent prostate cancer patients. d -Limonene, a non-nutrient dietary component, has been found to inhibit various cancer cell growths without toxicity. We sought to characterize whether a non-toxic dose of d -limonene may enhance tumor response to docetaxel in an in vitro model of metastatic prostate cancer. Results show, for the first time, that d -limonene enhanced the antitumor effect of docetaxel against prostate cancer cells without being toxic to normal prostate epithelial cells. The combined beneficial effect could be through the modulation of proteins involved in mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. d -Limonene could be used as a potent non-toxic agent to improve the treatment outcome of hormone-refractory prostate cancer with docetaxel.
Rabi T, Bishayee A. d -Limonene sensitizes docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in human prostate cancer cells: Generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of apoptosis. Journal of carcinogenesis 2009;8:9.